1. php

List of all PHP Operators

An operator is something that takes one or more values (or expressions, in programming jargon) and yields another value (so that the construction itself becomes an expression). Operators can be assembled by the quantity of qualities they take. Unary Operators take just a single esteem, for instance ! (the legitimate not Operators) or ++ (the augmentation Operators).

Binary Operators take two esteems, for example, the commonplace arithmetical Operators + (in addition to) and – (minus), and the greater part of PHP Operators fall into this class. At long last, there is a solitary ternary Operators, ? :, which takes three esteems; this is generally alluded to just as “the ternary administrator” (in spite of the fact that it could maybe more appropriately be known as the contingent Operators).

Below list will help php programming using Operators

PHP Operators – Manual: Table of Contents

PHP Arithmetic Operators

ExampleNameResult
+$aIdentity Conversion of $a to int or
float as appropriate.
-$aNegationOpposite of $a.
$a + $bAdditionSum of $a and $b.
$a – $bSubtractionDifference of $a and $b.
$a * $bMultiplicationProduct of $a and $b.
$a / $bDivisionQuotient of $a and $b.
$a % $bModuloRemainder of $a divided by $b.
$a ** $bExponentiationResult of raising $a to the $b‘th power. Introduced in PHP 5.6.

Demo

<?php

echo (5 % 3)."\n";           // prints 2
echo (5 % -3)."\n";          // prints 2
echo (-5 % 3)."\n";          // prints -2
echo (-5 % -3)."\n";         // prints -2

?>

PHP Assignment Operators

AssignmentSame as…Description
x = yx = yThe left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right
x += yx = x + yAddition
x -= yx = x – ySubtraction
x *= yx = x * yMultiplication
x /= yx = x / yDivision
x %= yx = x % yModulus

Demo

<?php
$x = 10;  
echo $x;
// Output 10

$x = 20;  
$x += 100;
echo $x;
// Output 120

$x = 50;
$x -= 30;
echo $x;
// Output 20

$x = 10;  
$y = 6;
echo $x * $y;
// Output 60

$x = 10;
$x /= 5;
echo $x;
// Output 2

$x = 15;
$x %= 4;
echo $x;
// Output 3
?>

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PHP Bitwise Operators

ExampleNameResult
$a & $bAndBits that are set in both $a and $b are set.
$a | $bOr (inclusive or)Bits that are set in either $a or $b are set.
$a ^ $bXor (exclusive or) Bits that are set in $a or $b but not both are set.
~ $aNot Bits that are set in $a are not set, and vice versa.
$a << $bShift left Shift the bits of $a $b steps to the left (each step means “multiply by two”)
$a >> $bShift right Shift the bits of $a $b steps to the right (each step means “divide by two”)

PHP Comparison Operators

ExampleNameResult
$a == $bEqualTRUE if $a is equal to $b after type juggling.
$a === $bIdentical TRUE if $a is equal to $b, and they are of the same
type.
$a != $bNot equalTRUE if $a is not equal to $b after type juggling.
$a <> $bNot equalTRUE if $a is not equal to $b after type juggling.
$a !== $bNot identical TRUE if $a is not equal to $b, or they are not of the same
type.
$a < $bLess thanTRUE if $a is strictly less than $b.
$a > $bGreater thanTRUE if $a is strictly greater than $b.
$a <= $bLess than or equal toTRUE if $a is less than or equal to $b.
$a >= $bGreater than or equal toTRUE if $a is greater than or equal to $b.
$a <=> $bSpaceship An integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero when $a is respectively less than, equal to, or greater than $b. Available as of PHP 7.

PHP Increment/decrement Operators

ExampleNameEffect
++$aPre-incrementIncrements $a by one, then returns $a.
$a++Post-incrementReturns $a, then increments $a by one.
–$aPre-decrementDecrements $a by one, then returns $a.
$a–Post-decrementReturns $a, then decrements $a by one.

Demo

<?php
echo "<h3>Postincrement</h3>";
$a = 5;
echo "Should be 5: " . $a++ . "<br />\n";
echo "Should be 6: " . $a . "<br />\n";

echo "<h3>Preincrement</h3>";
$a = 5;
echo "Should be 6: " . ++$a . "<br />\n";
echo "Should be 6: " . $a . "<br />\n";

echo "<h3>Postdecrement</h3>";
$a = 5;
echo "Should be 5: " . $a-- . "<br />\n";
echo "Should be 4: " . $a . "<br />\n";

echo "<h3>Predecrement</h3>";
$a = 5;
echo "Should be 4: " . --$a . "<br />\n";
echo "Should be 4: " . $a . "<br />\n";
?>

PHP Logical Operators

ExampleNameResult
$a and $bAndTRUE if both $a and $b are TRUE.
$a or $bOrTRUE if either $a or $b is TRUE.
$a xor $bXorTRUE if either $a or $b is TRUE, but not both.
! $aNotTRUE if $a is not TRUE.
$a && $bAndTRUE if both $a and $b are TRUE.
$a || $bOrTRUE if either $a or $b is TRUE.

Demo Code

<?php

// --------------------
// foo() will never get called as those operators are short-circuit

$a = (false && foo());
$b = (true  || foo());
$c = (false and foo());
$d = (true  or  foo());

// --------------------
// "||" has a greater precedence than "or"

// The result of the expression (false || true) is assigned to $e
// Acts like: ($e = (false || true))
$e = false || true;

// The constant false is assigned to $f before the "or" operation occurs
// Acts like: (($f = false) or true)
$f = false or true;

var_dump($e, $f);

// --------------------
// "&&" has a greater precedence than "and"

// The result of the expression (true && false) is assigned to $g
// Acts like: ($g = (true && false))
$g = true && false;

// The constant true is assigned to $h before the "and" operation occurs
// Acts like: (($h = true) and false)
$h = true and false;

var_dump($g, $h);
?>

The above example will output something similar to:

bool(true)
bool(false)
bool(false)
bool(true)

PHP String Operators

There are two string operators. The first is the concatenation operator (‘.’), which returns the concatenation of its right and left arguments. The second is the concatenating assignment operator (‘.=’), which appends the argument on the right side to the argument on the left side. Please read Assignment Operators for more information.

<?php
$a = "Hello ";
$b = $a . "World!"; // now $b contains "Hello World!"

$a = "Hello ";
$a .= "World!";     // now $a contains "Hello World!"
?>

PHP Array Operators

ExampleNameResult
$a + $bUnionUnion of $a and $b.
$a == $bEqualityTRUE if $a and $b have the same key/value pairs.
$a === $bIdentityTRUE if $a and $b have the same key/value pairs in the same
order and of the same types.
$a != $bInequalityTRUE if $a is not equal to $b.
$a <> $bInequalityTRUE if $a is not equal to $b.
$a !== $bNon-identityTRUE if $a is not identical to $b.

The + operator returns the right-hand array appended to the left-hand array; for keys that exist in both arrays, the elements from the left-hand array will be used, and the matching elements from the right-hand array will be ignored.

<?php
$a = array("a" => "apple", "b" => "banana");
$b = array("a" => "pear", "b" => "strawberry", "c" => "cherry");

$c = $a + $b; // Union of $a and $b
echo "Union of \$a and \$b: \n";
var_dump($c);

$c = $b + $a; // Union of $b and $a
echo "Union of \$b and \$a: \n";
var_dump($c);

$a += $b; // Union of $a += $b is $a and $b
echo "Union of \$a += \$b: \n";
var_dump($a);
?>

When executed, this script will print the following:

Union of $a and $b:
array(3) {
  ["a"]=>
  string(5) "apple"
  ["b"]=>
  string(6) "banana"
  ["c"]=>
  string(6) "cherry"
}
Union of $b and $a:
array(3) {
  ["a"]=>
  string(4) "pear"
  ["b"]=>
  string(10) "strawberry"
  ["c"]=>
  string(6) "cherry"
}
Union of $a += $b:
array(3) {
  'a' =>
  string(5) "apple"
  'b' =>
  string(6) "banana"
  'c' =>
  string(6) "cherry"
}
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