Error Handling in JavaScript: Best Practices and Strategies

Writing strong JavaScript applications requires efficient error handling. The user experience and application operation can be negatively impacted by problems that can be found and fixed with proper error handling javascript. Error handling best practices and approaches for handling mistakes in JavaScript are covered in this article.

These include treating failures at the source, giving clear error messages, recording errors, testing error situations, and employing a standard error-handling approach. Developers may make sure their code is error-resistant and simple to maintain and update by adhering to these best practices.

To increase the dependability and stability of your apps, learn the best techniques and approaches for managing errors in JavaScript. This page discusses typical error kinds, methods for identifying and dealing with mistakes, and advice for efficient debugging.

Common JavaScript Error Types

When a program is being run, JavaScript code has the potential to cause a variety of mistakes. The three sorts of JavaScript errors that occur most frequently are:

Syntax Errors:

These occur when the code’s syntax is incorrect. A missing semicolon, a misspelled term, or an erroneous variable name are a few examples.

Missing semicolon

// Missing semicolon
let greeting = "Hello, world!"

Misspelled keyword

// Misspelled keyword
let num = 5;
if (numb > 3) {
  console.log("num is greater than 3");

Invalid variable name

// Invalid variable name
let 2ndNum = 10;

Runtime Errors:

These happen when the software is being run. Examples include executing an undefined function, accessing an undervalued variable, or dividing by 0.

Accessing an undefined variable

// Accessing an undefined variable
let greeting;

Dividing by zero

// Dividing by zero
let result = 10 / 0;

Calling a non-existent function

// Calling a non-existent function
function multiply(num1, num2) {
  return num1 * num2;

multiply(5, 10, 15);

Logical Errors:

These happen when the code does not result in the desired outcome. An incorrect computation, condition, or comparison are a few examples.

Wrong calculation

// Wrong calculation
function calculateTotal(num1, num2) {
  return num1 + num2 + 5;

console.log(calculateTotal(10, 20)); // should output 35 but outputs 35

Wrong condition

// Wrong condition
function isEven(num) {
  return num % 2 === 0;

console.log(isEven(3)); // should output false but outputs true

Wrong comparison

// Wrong comparison
function getGrade(score) {
  if (score > 90) {
    return "A";
  } else if (score > 80) {
    return "B";
  } else if (score > 70) {
    return "C";
  } else if (score > 60) {
    return "D";
  } else {
    return "F";

console.log(getGrade(85)); // should output "B" but outputs "C"

Techniques for Detecting and Handling Errors

There are numerous methods for identifying and dealing with JavaScript issues. Among the most typical ones are:

Try-Catch Statement:

Use the JavaScript feature known as a “try-catch statement” to catch and deal with issues that happen within the try block. When an error happens, the catch block is called, and it can deal with it by offering another solution or showing the user a notice.

try {
  // code that may cause an error
  let num = undefinedVariable + 5;
} catch (error) {
  // handle the error
  console.log("An error occurred: " + error.message);

Error Object:

This JavaScript built-in object exposes details about a programming error that happened. The error object can be used to either log the issue to the console or display a customized message to the user.

try {
  // code that may cause an error
  let num = undefinedVariable + 5;
} catch (error) {
  // handle the error using the error object
  console.log("An error occurred: " + error.message);
  console.log("Error name: " +;
  console.log("Error stack trace: " + error.stack);

Throw Statement:

When a particular condition is not met, you can throw an error using the throw statement. The toss statement can be used to catch the error and deal with it in the catch block.

function calculateDiscount(price, discount) {
  if (discount > 1 || discount < 0) {
    // throw an error if discount is not a valid value
    throw new Error("Discount must be between 0 and 1");

  return price - (price * discount);

try {
  console.log(calculateDiscount(100, 1.5));
} catch (error) {
  console.log("An error occurred: " + error.message);

Finally Block:

This block is executed whether or not an error occurred. It can be used to clean up or free up resources that the program has already used.

try {
  // code that may cause an error
  let num = undefinedVariable + 5;
} catch (error) {
  // handle the error
  console.log("An error occurred: " + error.message);
} finally {
  // perform cleanup or release resources
  console.log("This block is executed regardless of whether an error occurred or not.");

Handling Asynchronous Errors:

Errors produced by asynchronous programming must also be handled correctly in order to prevent further damage. To deal with asynchronous errors, you can use the try-catch statement, error object, and throw statement.

async function fetchData() {
  try {
    const response = await fetch("");
    const data = await response.json();
  } catch (error) {
    console.log("An error occurred while fetching data: " + error.message);

How to Effectively Debugg

Finding and resolving code issues is the process of debugging. You can use a variety of tools and methods to debug software more quickly and efficiently. Some of them consist of:

Debugging Tools in Browsers:

The majority of contemporary browsers have built-in debugging tools for JavaScript programming. The call stack, breakpoints, step-by-step execution, and the terminal are some of these tools.

Console Object:

The built-in JavaScript object known as the console object enables you to log messages and values to the console. It can be used to log problems or display debugging data.

let x = 5;
console.log('The value of x is:', x);


Breakpoints are markers you can place in the code to stop a program from running. They can be used to step through the code line by line or check the values of variables.

// Example of setting a breakpoint in the code
function multiply(a, b) {
  return a * b;
multiply(2, 3);

Step-by-Step Execution:

This method enables you to run the code line-by-line in order to examine its actions and values.

// Example of using step-by-step execution
function calculateSum(a, b) {
  let sum = a + b;
  return sum;

Call Stack:

The stack of function calls that the program is now executing is known as the call stack. It can be used to monitor the program’s progress and find faults.

// Example of using the call stack to track function calls
function multiplyAndAdd(a, b, c) {
  let result = multiply(a, b);
  return result + c;
multiplyAndAdd(2, 3, 4);

Debugging Tools in IDEs:

Integrated development environments (IDEs) include tools for debugging JavaScript code as part of their default functionality. The debugger, breakpoints, and call stack are some of these tools.

// Example of using the debugger in an IDE
function calculateProduct(a, b) {
  let product = a * b;
  return product;
calculateProduct(2, 3);

// Example of setting a breakpoint in an IDE
for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
  if (i === 5) {

// Example of using the call stack in an IDE
function multiplyAndSubtract(a, b, c) {
  let product = a * b;
  let difference = c - product;
  return difference;
function calculateResult(a, b, c) {
  let result = multiplyAndSubtract(a, b, c);
  return result;
calculateResult(2, 3, 4);

Best Practices for JavaScript Error Handling

The best practices for error handling listed below should be followed to make sure your JavaScript code is dependable and stable:

Handle Errors at the Source:

Whenever possible, deal with issues right where they came from. This means that rather than having errors spread to higher levels, you should capture them and manage them in the function where they occur.

function divide(x, y) {
  try {
    let result = x / y;
    if(isNaN(result)) throw new Error("Invalid result: NaN");
    return result;
  } catch (e) {
    console.error("An error occurred:", e.message);

In the above code snippet, the divide function handles the Error at the source by catching it and logging an error message.

Provide Meaningful Error Messages:

Error messages must be insightful and meaningful. They should explain the mistake that happened and offer a repair or detailed advice on how to correct it.

function validateEmail(email) {
  if(!email.includes("@")) {
    throw new Error("Invalid email address: missing '@' symbol");

In the above code snippet, the validateEmail function throws an Error with a meaningful error message when the email address is invalid.

Log Errors:

For debugging and troubleshooting, logging errors is essential. You ought to record mistakes in a central location, such as a database or logging service.

function fetchData(url) {
    .then(response => {
      if(!response.ok) {
        throw new Error(`Network response error: ${response.status}`);
      return response.json();
    .then(data => console.log(data))
    .catch(error => console.error("An error occurred:", error));

In the above code snippet, the fetchData function logs an error message if there is a network response error while fetching data from a URL.

Test Error Scenarios:

Just as crucial as testing functional scenarios are error scenario tests. To make sure that it responds appropriately in unforeseen circumstances, you should test your code for various error scenarios.

function multiply(x, y) {
  if(typeof x !== "number" || typeof y !== "number") {
    throw new TypeError("Invalid arguments: expected numbers");
  return x * y;

try {
  multiply("a", 2);
} catch (e) {
  console.error("An error occurred:", e.message);

The multiply method in the aforementioned code snippet throws a TypeError if one of the inputs is not an integer. The function is then put to the test using erroneous arguments to make sure the error is handled properly.

Use a Standard Error Handling Strategy:

Throughout your codebase, use a standard error-handling strategy. This gives your program a consistent look and makes it easier to maintain and update your code.

try {
  // some code that might throw an error
} catch (e) {
  console.error("An error occurred:", e.message);
  // handle error with a standard error handling strategy
} finally {
  // code to be executed regardless of whether an error occurred or not

A try…catch…finally block is used in the code sample above to handle errors using a common error handling technique. The finally block makes sure that certain function is run whether or not an error occurred.


Q: How do I deal with asynchronous code errors?

A: Errors produced by asynchronous programming must be correctly handled. To deal with asynchronous errors, you can use the try-catch statement, error object, and throw statement.

Q: What distinguishes a runtime fault from a syntax error?

A: A runtime error happens while the program is being executed, whereas a syntax error results from flaws in the syntax of the code.

Q: What is the best way to log errors in JavaScript?

The best way to log errors in JavaScript is to use a centralized logging service or database.


A crucial component of creating dependable and robust applications is error handling. This article discussed common JavaScript error types, methods for finding and fixing mistakes, advice for efficient debugging, and best practices for managing errors. You can make sure that your JavaScript code is reliable and error-free by adhering to these guidelines. It’s important to deal with errors as soon as they happen, to give clear error messages, to log them, to test error situations, and to use the same error-handling method throughout your software.

Latest posts by W3TWEAKS (see all)


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *